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Peractic Acid Studies

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* HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB) *
* *
* Produced by : U.S. National Library of Medicine *
* Provided by : Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Issue : 2000-2 (May, 2000) *

*** SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION ***

HSDB CHEMICAL NAME : PERACETIC ACID
HSDB NUMBER : 1106
LAST REVISION DATE : 20000309
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER : 79-21-0
SYNONYMS:
ACETIC PEROXIDE ; ACETYL HYDROPEROXIDE ; ACIDE PERACETIQUE (FRENCH) ; Acide peroxyacetique (French) ; Acido peroxiacetico (Spanish) ; Caswell No. 644 ; DESOXON 1 ; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 063201 ; Estosteril ; ETHANEPEROXOIC ACID ; HYDROPEROXIDE, ACETYL ; KYSELINA PEROXYOCTOVA (Czech) ; Monoperacetic acid ; OSBON AC ; PAA [REF-1, p.406]; PEROXOACETIC ACID ; PEROXYACETIC ACID ; Proxitane 4002
MOLECULAR FORMULA : C2-H4-O3
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION : QOV1 [REF-2, p.85/8507]
RTECS NUMBER : NIOSH/SD8750000
SHIPPING NUMBER/NAME:
UN 2131; Peroxyacetic acid, not more than 43% and not more than 6% hydrogen peroxide
NA 2131; Peracetic acid solution, not over 43% peracetic acid and not over 6% hydrogen peroxide
IMO 5.2; Peroxyacetic acid, not more than 43% and with not more than 6% hydrogen peroxide

*** DESCRIPTION AND WARNING PROPERTIES ***

COLOR/FORM:
Colorless liquid [REF-3]
ODOR:
Acrid [REF-4, p.1231]
SKIN, EYE, AND RESPIRATORY IRRITATIONS:
Vapor: Irritating to eyes, nose & throat. Liquid: Irritating to skin & eyes. [REF-5]
Strong skin and eye irritant. [REF-6, p.46]

*** SAFETY HAZARDS AND PROTECTION ***

DOT EMERGENCY GUIDELINES:
. Fire or explosion: May explode from heat or contamination. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. May burn rapidly with flare-burning effect. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns, or death. Contact of vapor or substance with eyes may cause blindness within minutes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Toxic fumes or dust may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number on Shipping Paper first. If Shipping Paper not available or no answer, refer to appropriate telephone number listed on the inside back cover. Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 25 to 50 meters (80 to 160 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial evacuation for at least 250 meters (800 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Do not use straight streams. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. ALWAYS stay away from the ends of tanks. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. Spill or leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Keep substance wet using water spray. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Small spills: Take up with inert, damp, noncombustible material using clean non-sparking tools and place into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal. Large spills: Wet down with water and dike for later disposal. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. DO NOT CLEAN-UP OR DISPOSE OF, EXCEPT UNDER SUPERVISION OF A SPECIALIST. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]
. First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call emergency medical care. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Remove material from skin immediately. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Peracetic acid, solution/ [REF-7, p.G-147]

** FIRE AND REACTIVITY **

FIRE POTENTIAL:
. Flammable liquid. [REF-8, p.2611]
. Dangerous fire hazard by chemical reaction with reducing agents or exposure to heat. /Organic peroxides/ [REF-8, p.2611]

NFPA HAZARD CLASSIFICATION:
. Health: 3. 3= Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. Fire fighters may enter the area only if they are protected from all contact with the material. Full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus, coat, pants, gloves, boots and bands around legs, arms, and waist, should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed. /Peracetic acid diluted with 60% acetic acid/ [REF-9, p.325M-77]
. Flammability: 2. 2= Includes materials that must be moderately heated before ignition will occur and includes Class II and IIIA combustible liquids and solids and semi-solids that readily give off ignitible vapors. Water spray may be used to extinguish fires in these materials because the materials can be cooled below their flash points. /Peracetic acid diluted with 60% acetic acid/ [REF-9, p.325M-77]
. Reactivity: 4. 4= Includes materials that, in themselves, are readily capable of detonation, explosive decomposition, or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This includes materials that are sensitive to local mechanical or thermal shock. If a material having this Reactivity Hazard Rating is involved in an advanced or massive fire, the area should be immediately evacuated. /Peracetic acid diluted with 60% acetic acid/ [REF-9, p.325M-77]

FLASH POINT:
40.6 deg C (Open cup) [REF-10, p.400]

AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE:
392 deg F (200 deg C) /Peracetic acid (less than 40%)/ [REF-9, p.49-134]

FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES:
. Use flooding quantities of water. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. /Peracetic acid (less than 40%)/ [REF-9, p.49-133]
. To fight fire, use water, foam, CO2. [REF-8, p.2611]

EXPLOSIVE LIMITS AND POTENTIAL:
. Liquid will detonate if concn rises above 56% because of evaporation of acetic acid. [REF-5]
. SPONTANEOUS CHEMICAL REACTION, IGNITION OR EXPLOSION MAY OCCUR IF MIXED WITH READILY OXIDIZABLE, ORGANIC OR FLAMMABLE MATERIALS OR CHEMICAL ACCELERANTS. [REF-9, p.49-134]
. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat or by spontaneous chemical reaction. Explodes violently at 110 deg C. [REF-8, p.2611]
. It is insensitive to impact but explodes violently at 110 deg C. The solid acid has exploded at -20 deg C. [REF-11]

REACTIVITIES AND INCOMPATIBILITIES:
. Explosive reaction with acetic anhydride; 5-p-chlorophenyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-hexanone. Violent reaction with ether solvents (e.g., tetrahydrofuran; diethyl ether); metal chloride solutions (e.g., calcium chloride; potassium chloride; sodium chloride); olefins; organic matter. [REF-8, p.2611]
. Upon contact with reducing materials, such as organic matter or thiocyanates, an explosion can occur. /Organic peroxides/ [REF-8, p.2611]

DECOMPOSITION:
. DECOMPOSES VIOLENTLY @ 230 DEG F (110 DEG C) /PERACETIC ACID DILUTED WITH 60% ACETIC ACID/ [REF-9, p.325M-77]
. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. [REF-8, p.2611]

OTHER HAZARDOUS REACTIONS:
. Shock- and friction-sensitive when concentrated above 56%. /Peracetic acid (less than 40%)/ [REF-9, p.49-134]

** PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS **

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING:

. Self-contained breathing apparatus; full protective clothing (goggles, rubber gloves, etc) [REF-5]

OTHER PREVENTATIVE MEASURES:

. METHODS ARE ADOPTED FOR HANDLING PERACETIC ACID IN AIR-CONDITIONED LAB FOR GERM-FREE ANIMALS TO MINIMIZE AMT OF FREE ACID VAPOR CIRCULATING. TECHNIQUES HELPED TO CONFINE & NEUTRALIZE PERACETIC ACID VAPOR. [REF-12]
. SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.

** STORAGE, CLEANUP AND DISPOSAL **

STABILITY/SHELF LIFE:
. Thermally unstable. [REF-9, p.49-133]
. After 30 days the specific formulations Peracetic Acid 20 g/l, Peracetic Acid N 20 g/l (with wetting agent), and Peracetic Acid Spirit show a loss of peracetic acid of 25, 35, 22%, respectively, with storage at 2-5 degrees. [REF-13]

STORAGE CONDITIONS:
. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location. Separate from acids, alkalies, organic materials, heavy metals. Normally kept refrigerated outside or detached storage is preferred. /Peracetic acid (less than 40%)/ [REF-9, p.49-134]

CLEANUP METHODS:
. Cover with weak reducing agents such as hypo, bisulfites or ferrous salts. Bisulfites or ferrous salts need additional promoter of some 3M sulfuric acid for rapid reaction. Transfer the slurry (or sludge) into a large container of water and neutralize with soda ash. ... [REF-10, p.400]
. Eliminate all ignition sources. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors; protect personnel, and dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. Absorb in noncombustile material for proper disposal. ... /Peracetic acid (less than 40%)/ [REF-9, p.49-133]

DISPOSAL METHODS:
. /SRP: For laboratory scale quantities/: Destruction procedure: Add 5 ml or 5 g of the compound to 100 ml of 10% (w/v) sodium metabisulfite solution and stir the mixture at room temp. Test for completeness of destruction by adding a few drops of the reaction mixture to an equal volume of 10% (w/v) potassium iodide soln, acidifying with 1 M hydrochloric acid soln, and adding a drop of starch as an indicator. A deep blue color indicates the presence of excess oxidant. If destruction is complete, discard the mixture. If destruction is not complete, add more sodium metabisulfite soln until a negative test is obtained. /Peracids/ [REF-14, p.329]
. SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

*** HEALTH HAZARDS AND TOXIC EFFECTS ***

HUMAN TOXICITY EXCERPTS:

SYMPTOMATOLOGY (... INGESTION OR SKIN CONTACT): 1. CORROSION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF MOUTH, THROAT AND ESOPHAGUS, WITH IMMEDIATE PAIN AND DYSPHAGIA. NECROTIC AREAS ... GRAYISH WHITE BUT SOON ACQUIRE A BLACKISH DISCOLORATION (YELLOW IN CASE OF NITRIC ACID) & SOMETIMES SHRUNKEN OR WRINKLED TEXTURE ... 2. EPIGASTRIC PAIN ... MAY BE ASSOC WITH NAUSEA & VOMITING ... AT TIMES, GASTRIC HEMORRHAGE MAY BE INTENSE, AND VOMITUS THEN CONTAINS FRESH BLOOD. PROFOUND THIRST. 3. ULCERATION OF ALL MEMBRANES AND TISSUES WITH WHICH THE ACID COMES IN CONTACT. AFTER THE INGESTION OF CONCN MINERAL ACID, THIS CORROSION MAY LEAD WITHIN A FEW HR OR A FEW DAYS TO GASTRIC PERFORATION AND PERITONITIS. 4. CIRCULATORY COLLAPSE WITH CLAMMY SKIN, WEAK & RAPID PULSE, SHALLOW RESP, AND SCANTY URINE. CIRCULATORY SHOCK IS OFTEN IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF DEATH. 6. LATE ESOPHAGEAL, GASTRIC & PYLORIC STRICTURES & STENOSES, WHICH MAY REQUIRE MAJOR SURGICAL REPAIR, SHOULD BE ANTICIPATED. SIGNS OF OBSTRUCTION COMMONLY A!
PPEAR WITHIN A FEW WK BUT MAY BE DELAYED FOR MONTHS AND EVEN YEARS. PERMANENT SCARS MAY ALSO APPEAR IN THE CORNEA, SKIN AND OROPHARYNX. 7. UNCORRECTED CIRCULATORY COLLAPSE OF SEVERAL HR ... MAY LEAD TO RENAL FAILURE & ISCHEMIC LESIONS IN LIVER & HEART. /ACIDS/ [REF-15, p.III-10]

PERACETIC ACID HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED AS A CILIA TOXIC & MUCOUS COAGULATING AGENT IN URBAN AIR POLLUTION. [REF-16, p.339]

No adverse effects such as fever, chills, burning sensation of the shunt, headache, or bacteremia were seen after 80 dialyses with reprocessed dialyzers disinfected with peracetic acid, using dialyzers up to 6 times. [REF-17]

Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Reuse of dialyzers has introduced the use of sterilants such as peracetic acid. The use of these sterilants is recognized as a potential risk, and residue tests are carried out for the presence of these sterilants at the ppm level. [REF-18]

When Renalin was used for reprocessing hemodialyzers, decreases in clearance of urea, creatinine, vitamin B-12 and a fall in KUF was observed. [REF-19]

NON-HUMAN TOXICITY EXCERPTS:

Virus inactivation by peracetic acid was observed in a municipal sewage effluent. [REF-20]

Mice and guinea pigs were exposed to peracetic acid aerosol (186 or 280 mg/cu m) 30 min twice daily for 90 days. Bronchopneumonia and liver granuloma were observed in most of the animals. Increased incidence of lung tumors and decreased leukocyte counts were observed in mice. [REF-21]

Topical application of a 0.12% solution of peroxyethanoic acid 2 times daily for either 28 or 90 days, with a regimen of 5 days of treatment followed by 2 days of no treatment, caused general systemic toxic effects in the /guinea pigs/; the effects were more pronounced with the 90 day treatment. [REF-22]

Guinea pigs exposed to inhalation of 1 or 3% solutions of peracetic acid for 3 days showed eye irritation and coughing, both in a concn-related manner. The mucosas of the respiratory tract of animals treated with a 3% solution showed histopathological alterations whereas the animals treated with 1% did not show such toxic effects. [REF-23]

Peracetic acid at 3% caused dermatitis on guinea pig skin with the dermatitis starting after 2 hr of direct contact. There was no dermatitis after 5 hr of direct contact with a 1% solution. [REF-24]

Peroxyacetic acid was assayed for induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis by liquid scintillation counting of hot acid extractable DNA and light microscope autoradiography. Peroxyacetic acid was also assayed for induction of DNA repair synthesis by differential density labeling ultracentrifugation. Conflicting results were obtained for peroxyacetic acid using the unscheduled DNA synthesis techniques. Negative results were consistently obtained, however, in 3 separate assays using 2 different peroxyacetic acid samples with the more definitive differential density DNA repair synthesis technique. Hydrogen peroxide was present as a contaminant in the peroxyacetic acid samples. Peroxyacetic acid does not induce DNA repair synthesis and the conflicting peroxyacetic acid results may be due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide in commercial samples of peroxyacetic acid. [REF-25]

Peracetic acid at a concentration of 0.1% in water has been found to be ... irritating to rabbit's eyes. However, 10% solution causes ulceration and perforation of the cornea and formation of symblepharon, despite prompt irrigation with water after application to the rabbit's eye. [REF-26, p.708]

Four chemicals were evaluated for their efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum. Peratol, a hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid containing formulation, gave 100% kill after 80 min at a concentration of 0.5%. [REF-27]

There is no release of evaporable toxic substances into the air after disinfection with the exception of products based on peracetic acid. Cell cultures are chosen as indicators for the toxicity of evaporable substances. It is shown that the cells were able to propagate in the presence of active oxygen containing disinfectants as well as in the blanc test. However, there was no propagation of cells in the presence of formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde and peracetic acid. [REF-28]

In a long term experiment on rabbits, 0.2% peracetic acid (0.5% Wofasteril) was applied to the dorsal skin, the oral and the vaginal mucosa 3 times per week for 12 months. Each type of tissue received 153 individual doses. The histological examinations did not yield dysplasias in the sense of a carcinogenic action of peracetic acid. Despite the very high dose, the mucosal tissues under study showed neither inflammations nor scar formation after 12 months. A loss of minute accessory hairs on the dorsal skin was observed. [REF-29]

... The characterization of the skin tolerance to several disinfectants /was studied/. ... Guinea pig epidermis was treated for 1, 7 and 14 days with conventional working dilution of peracetic acid ... disinfectant. ... The exposure to the disinfectant caused a disappearance of histochemically detectable Langerhans cells in treated epidermis. .... [REF-30]

Histological investigations were made on uteri of 61 cattle (27 of them after intrauterine treatment). The response activated by 0.2% peracetic acid in the bovine endometrium was a primary inflammatory process, however, necrotizing within clearly pronounced limits. Degenerative alterations were the major histological findings 35 min from application of 0.2% peracetic acid. They were recordable from the epithelium but at that point in time could easily affect the entire cellular stratum. Histopathological phenomena on the fourth day from application of 0.2% peracetic acid were clearly less strongly pronounced than on the third day. Histiocyte infiltrates of moderate and rarely high intensity reflected incr phagocytosis in the process of endometrial regeneration. [REF-31]

** EMERGENCY TREATMENT **

ANTIDOTE AND EMERGENCY TREATMENT:

For immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If victim is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep victim quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Organic peroxides/ [REF-32, p.134]

For basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary ... For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 mL/kg up to 200 mL of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. Do not attempt to neutralize because of exothermic reaction. Cover skin burns with dry, sterile dressings after decontamination ... . /Organic peroxides/ [REF-32, p.135]

*** METABOLISM AND PHARMACOLOGY ***

MECHANISM OF ACTION:

To explore possible mechanisms of the arachidonic acid deficiency of the RBC membrane in alcoholics, the effect of ethanol and its oxidized products, acetaldehyde and peracetic acid, with other peroxides on the accumulation of 14(C)arachidonate into RBC membrane lipids in vitro was compared. Incubation of erythrocytes with 50 mM ethanol or 3 mM acetaldehyde had no effect on arachidonate incorporation. Pretreatment of erythrocytes with 10 mM hydrogen peroxide, 0.1 mM cumene hydroperoxide or 0.1 mM t-butyl hydroperoxide had little effect on 14(C)arachidonate incorporation in the absence of azide. However, pretreatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide, 0.1 mM peracetic acid or performic acid, with or without azide, inhibited arachidonate incorporation into phospholipids but not neutral lipids. In chase experiments, peracetate also inhibited transfer of arachidonate from neutral lipids to phospholipids. To investigate a possible site of this inhibition of arachidonate transfer!
into phospholipids by percarboxylic acids, a repair enzyme, arachidonoyl CoA: 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acyl transferase was assayed. As in intact cells, phospholipid biosynthesis was inhibited more by N-ethylmalemide and peracetic acid than by hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and t-butyl hydroperoxide. Peracetic acid was the only active inhibitor among ethanol and its oxidized products studied and may deserve further examination in ethanol toxicity. [REF-33]

*** ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EXPOSURE POTENTIAL ***

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE/EXPOSURE SUMMARY:

Peracetic acid's production and use as a bleaching agent, fungicide and bactericide may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. It is also formed naturally in the environment through a series of photochemical reactions involving formaldehyde and photo-oxidant radicals. Based on an experimental vapor pressure of 14.5 mm Hg at 25 deg C, peracetic acid is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase peracetic acid is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated atmospheric half-life of about 4 days. Due to its high water solubility, it can dissolve in clouds and rainwater and has been identified as a constituent of acid rain. Peracetic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soils based on an estimated Koc value of 4. Volatilization from dry soil surfaces is expected based upon the vapor pressure of this compound. Volatilization from moist soil su!
rfaces is also expected based upon the measured Henry's Law constant of 2.14X10-6 atm-cu m/mol. This compound has been shown to biodegrade under aerobic conditions. In water, peracetic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids or sediment based upon its estimated Koc value. A measured pKa value of 8.2 indicates that peracetic acid is expected to dissociate somewhat at environmental pH values. This compound is also expected to slowly hydrolyze to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to occur slowly given its measured Henry's Law constant. Estimated half-lives for a model river and model lake are 15 and 112 days, respectively. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is considered low based upon an estimated BCF value of 1. Occupational exposure may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where peracetic acid is produced or used. (SRC)

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:

. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a recommended classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 4(SRC), determined from a structure estimation method(2), indicates that peracetic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of peracetic acid from dry soil surfaces is expected based upon the measured vapor pressure of 14.5 mm Hg at 25 deg C(3,SRC). Volatilization of peracetic acid from moist soil surfaces(SRC) is also expected given a measured Henry's Law constant of 2.14X10-6 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(4). Peracetic acid is expected to biodegrade in soils as indicated by an aerobic screening test(5). [REF-34]
. AQUATIC FATE: Based on a recommended classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 4(SRC), determined from a structure estimation method(2), indicates that peracetic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in water(SRC). Peracetic acid will volatilize slowly from water surfaces(3,SRC) based on a measured Henry's Law constant of 2.14X10-6 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(4). Estimated half-lives for a model river and model lake are 15 and 112 days, respectively(3,SRC). A measured pKa value of 8.2 indicates that peracetic acid is expected to dissociate somewhat at environmental pH values(4,SRC). Peracetic acid is expected to hydrolyze slowly to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in water(5). According to a classification scheme(6), an estimated BCF value of 1(3,SRC), from an estimated log Kow of -1.09(7,SRC), suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Peracetic acid is expected to biodegrade as indicated by an aerobic screening t!
est(8). [REF-35]
. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), peracetic acid, which has an experimental vapor pressure of 14.5 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase peracetic acid is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be about 4 days(3,SRC). This compounds high water solubility enables it to be removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition and become a constituent in acid rain(4). [REF-36]

BIODEGRADATION:

. Using a standard BOD dilution technique and a sewage inoculum, a theoretical BOD of greater than 70% was observed for peracetic acid over an unspecified time frame(1). [REF-37]

ABIOTIC DEGRADATION:

. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of peracetic acid with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated as 4.04X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(1). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 4 days at an atmospheric concentration of 5.0X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(1,SRC). A measured pKa value of 8.2 indicates that peracetic acid is expected to dissociate somewhat at environmental pH values(2,SRC). Peracetic acid is expected to hydrolyze slowly to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in water(3). [REF-38]

BIOCONCENTRATION:

. An estimated BCF value of 1 was calculated for peracetic acid(SRC), using an estimated log Kow of -1.09(1,SRC) and a recommended regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF value suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). [REF-39]

SOIL ADSORPTION/MOBILITY:

. Using a structure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices(1), the Koc for peracetic acid can be estimated to be about 4(SRC). According to a recommended classification scheme(2), this estimated Koc value suggests that peracetic acid is expected to have high mobility in soil(SRC). [REF-40]

VOLATILIZATION FROM WATER/SOIL:

. The Henry's Law constant for peracetic acid is measured as 2.14X10-6 atm-cu m/mole(SRC) at 25 deg C(1). This value indicates that peracetic acid will volatilize slowly from water surfaces(2,SRC). Based on this Henry's Law constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river (1 m deep, flowing 1 m/sec, wind velocity of 3 m/sec) is estimated as approximately 15 days(2,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model lake (1 m deep, flowing 0.05 m/sec, wind velocity of 0.5 m/sec) is estimated as approximately 112 days(2,SRC). Peracetic acid is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces given its experimental vapor pressure of 14.5 mm Hg at 25 deg C(3,SRC). [REF-41]

** SOURCES AND CONCENTRATIONS **

NATURAL OCCURRING SOURCES:
. Peracetic acid is formed naturally in the environment through a series of photochemical reactions involving formaldehyde and photo-oxidant radicals(1). This compound's high water solubility enables it to become a constituent in acid rain(1). [REF-42]

ARTIFICIAL SOURCES:
. Peracetic acid's production and use as a bleaching agent, fungicide and bactericide(1) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams(SRC). [REF-43]

WATER CONCENTRATIONS:
. RAIN/SNOW: Acidic precipitation contains peracetic acid at nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations(1). [REF-42]

** HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE **

PROBABLE ROUTES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE:
. Occupational exposure to peracetic acid can occur through dermal contact and inhalation of vapor(1,SRC); personal protective equipment, including eye protection equipment, should be worn by persons handling the material(1). [REF-44, p.44-5]
. NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 1,729 workers (92 of these are female) are potentially exposed to peracetic acid in the US(1). Occupational exposure may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where peracetic acid is produced or used(SRC). [REF-45]

*** STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS ***

TRANSPORT METHODS AND REGULATIONS:
. No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./ [REF-46]
. The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article. [REF-47, p.5198-2, 5198-3]

CERCLA REPORTABLE QUANTITIES:
. Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances are subject to the release reporting requirement of CERCLA section 103, codified at 40 CFR part 302, in addition to the requirements of 40 CFR part 355. Peracetic acid is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 500 lbs. [QR] [REF-48]

FIFRA REQUIREMENTS:
. As the federal pesticide law FIFRA directs, EPA is conducting a comprehensive review of older pesticides to consider their health and environmental effects and make decisions about their future use. Under this pesticide reregistration program, EPA examines health and safety data for pesticide active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and determines whether they are eligible for reregistration. In addition, all pesticides must meet the new safety standard of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Pesticides for which EPA had not issued Registration Standards prior to the effective date of FIFRA, as amended in 1988, were divided into three lists based upon their potential for human exposure and other factors, with List B containing pesticides of greater concern and List D pesticides of less concern. Peroxyacetic acid is found on List D. Case No: 4072; Pesticide type: Fungicide, Herbicide, Rodenticide, Antimicrobial; Case Status: RED Approved 12/93;!
OPP has made a decision that some/all uses of the pesticide are eligible for reregistration, as reflected in a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document.; Active ingredient (AI): Peroxyacetic acid; AI Status: OPP has completed a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document for the case/AI. [QR] [REF-49, p.331]

*** MONITORING AND ANALYSIS METHODS ***

ANALYTIC LABORATORY METHODS:

. Peracetic acid was determined in disinfectant containing hydrogen peroxide by mixing 20 ml disinfectant with 1 g sodium fluoride and titrating with 0.1 N potassium iodide until the pink color remains. The solution is then mixed with potassium iodide, and the iodide formed is titrated with 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate with starch indicator. [REF-50]
. Rapid photometric method to determine the contents of active chlorine and peracetic acid in soln of disinfectants. [REF-51]

*** MANUFACTURING AND USE INFORMATION ***

METHODS OF MANUFACTURING:
. [SRI] REACTION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND GLACIAL ACETIC ACID IN THE PRESENCE OF SULFURIC ACID CATALYST.
. PREPARED FROM ACETALDEHYDE AND OXYGEN IN PRESENCE OF COBALT ACETATE. BY THE AUTO-OXIDN OF ACETALDEHYDE. A 50% SOLN MAY BE OBTAINED FROM ACETIC ANHYDRIDE, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, & SULFURIC ACID. [REF-4, p.1231]
. COMMERCIALLY, OZONE IS USED AS A CATALYST BELOW 15 deg C IN THE PRODUCTION OF PERACETIC ACID FROM ACETALDEHYDE AND OZONE [REF-52, p.V16 687]

FORMULATIONS/PREPARATIONS:
. 40% peracetic acid, 40% acetic acid, 5% hydrogen peroxide, 13% water, 500 ppm stabilizer [REF-5]
. Grade: technical [REF-3]
. Commercially available as a 40% solution in acetic acid. [REF-15, p.II-108]

MANUFACTURERS:
. FMC Corporation, Hq, 200 E Randolph Dr, Chicago, IL 60601, (312) 861-6000; Chemical Products Group, 1735 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19103; Peroxygen Chemical Div, River Rd and Sawyer Ave, PO Box 845, Buffalo, NY 14240; Production site: Buffalo, NY 14240 [REF-53, p.782]
. Union Carbide Corporation, Hq, Old Ridgeway Road, Danbury, CT 06817, (203) 794-2000; Subsidiary: Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Co, Inc; Solvents and Coatings Materials Div; Production site: Taft, LA 70057 [REF-53, p.782]

OTHER MANUFACTURING INFORMATION:
. A bioprosthesis sterilized with peracetic acid can be detoxified within 5 min by treatment with a sodium sulfite solution or by storing once in distilled water for 3 days. [REF-54]
. Storage of swine aortas in pH 5.6 buffered 1.332 M formaldehyde or 26.30 mM peracetic acid for 180 days gave no differences in mechanical strength and stability of the prostheses. [REF-55]
. Reprocessing of dialyzers using peracetic acid is an alternative to formaldehyde. [REF-17]

MAJOR USES:
. BACTERICIDE & FUNGICIDE, ESPECIALLY IN FOOD PROCESSING; REAGENT IN MAKING CAPROLACTAM; SYNTHETIC GLYCEROL [REF-3]
. BLEACHING TEXTILES, PAPER, OIL, WAXES, STARCH; POLYMERIZATION CATALYST; EPIOXIDATION OF FATTY ACID ESTERS AND EPOXY RESINS PRECURSORS [REF-3]
. Peracetic acid at a concentration of 0.1% in water has been found to be an effective disinfectant for Schiotz tonometers. ... [REF-26, p.708]
. POSTHARVEST SPRAY FOR BANANAS, CITRUS, BERRIES, OTHER FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND CONTAINERS; WASH FOR EGGS; TREATMENT FOR CONTAINERS FOR HARVESTING CROPS. [REF-56, p.C-282]

U.S. PRODUCTION:
[SRI] (1972) PROBABLY GREATER THAN 1.08X10+10 G
[SRI] (1974) GREATER THAN 1.08X10+10 G

*** CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ***

MOLECULAR WEIGHT : 76.05 [REF-4, p.1231]
MELTING POINT : -0.2 DEG C [REF-57, p.3-156]
BOILING POINT : 105 DEG C [REF-3]
DENSITY/SPECIFIC GRAVITY : 1.226 @ 15 DEG C/4 DEG C [REF-57, p.3-156]
VAPOR PRESSURE : 14.5 mm Hg at 25 deg C [REF-58]
CORROSIVITY : Corrosive to most metals, including aluminum [REF-5]
Highly corrosive [REF-15, p.II-108]
DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS:
pKa= 8.20 at 25 deg C [REF-59, p.5-53]
VISCOSITY : 3.280 cP @ 78 deg F [REF-5]

SOLUBILITIES:
. VERY SOL IN WATER, ETHER, SULFURIC ACID; SOL IN ETHANOL [REF-57, p.3-156]

SPECTRAL PROPERTIES:
. INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.3974 @ 20 DEG C/D; MAX ABSORPTION (WATER): BELOW 240 NM (LOG E= GREATER THAN 1.4) [REF-60, p.C-96]
. UV: 3-4 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York) [REF-61, p.V2 37]

OTHER CHEMICAL/PHYSICAL:
. Oxidizing material dangerous in contact with organic materials, explodes at 110 deg C. [REF-3]
. Henry's Law constant: 2.08X10-6 atm cu m/mole at 25 deg C (experimental) [REF-62]

*** REFERENCES ***

SPECIAL REPORTS:

. Flemming HC; Peracetic Acid as Disinfectant--A Review Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg (B) 179 (2): 97-111 (1984). A review on peracetic acid as a disinfectant.
. USEPA; Chemical Profiles: Peracetic Acid (1985). Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
. Lai DY, et al; J Environ Sci Hlth 14 (1, Pt C): 63-80 (1996). Carcinogenic potential of organic peroxides prediction based on structure activity relationships and mechanism based short term test.

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*** END OF RECORD ***
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